Abbreviations, German

I hope to gradually update this list over time.

In the meantime, the best resource for unpacking abbreviations that I have found is Duden.

Some of the most important abbreviations are explained here.

One helpful tip on abbreviations that I have just been given (by Christoph Markschies) is that there is a convention of signalizing the plural of an abbreviated word by doubling the last letter: “proff.” = professores).


ebd. = ebenda = ibidem = in the same place = as just cited above

Hss. = Handschriften

o. J. = ohne Jahr = without year [hopefully]

m.E. = meines Erachtens = in my view/opinion

u.a. = und and[e]re, und and[e]res, unter ander[e]m, unter ander[e]n = and others OR among other things (inter alia)

u.ö = und öfters = not sure: I think it might have the force of “and often” but it might have the weaker sense of “and occasionally” or “and once in a while” – hence I usually waffle and translate it as “and elsewhere”.

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